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Mathematics (MATH)

Also, line segments that extend through points and appear to lie on the same line may be assumed to be on the same line. SAT Suite of Assessments. Mathematics Level 1 Subject Test. Calculator use permitted. See calculator policy, including what calculators are acceptable. Expand All Collapse All. Anticipated Skills. Number and operations Algebra and functions Geometry and measurement plane Euclidean, coordinate, three-dimensional, and trigonometry Data analysis, statistics, and probability.

Recommended Preparation.

Guide Introductory Mathematics for Economics 5: Vectors (Japanese Edition)

At least three years of college-preparatory mathematics, including two years of algebra and one year of geometry. Topics on the Test.

Practice Resources. Features include: 20 full-length, previously administered Subject Tests Detailed answer explanations for all test questions The most up-to-date tips and approaches on selecting which tests to take, the best time to take the tests, and how to best be ready for test day The latest versions of the instructions, background questions and answer sheet Detailed descriptions of every Subject Test, including topics covered and recommended course work Two audio CDs for all six Language with Listening Tests. Choosing Between Math Levels 1 and 2. Areas of Overlap on Math Level 1 and Math Level 2 The content of Level 1 has some overlap with Level 2, especially in the following areas: Elementary algebra Three-dimensional geometry Coordinate geometry Statistics Basic trigonometry How Test Content Differs Although some questions may be appropriate for both tests, the emphasis for Level 2 is on more-advanced content.

The tests differ significantly in the following areas: Number and Operations. Level 1 measures a more basic understanding of the topics than Level 2. For example, Level 1 covers the arithmetic of complex numbers, but Level 2 also covers graphical and other properties of complex numbers. Level 2 also includes series and vectors.

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Algebra and Functions. Level 1 contains mainly algebraic equations and functions, whereas Level 2 also contains more advanced equations and functions, such as exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric. Geometry and Measurement. A significant percentage of the questions on Level 1 is devoted to plane Euclidean geometry and measurement, which is not tested directly on Level 2.

On Level 2, the concepts learned in plane geometry are applied in the questions on coordinate geometry and three-dimensional geometry. The trigonometry questions on Level 1 are primarily limited to right triangle trigonometry sine, cosine, tangent and the fundamental relationships among the trigonometric ratios. Level 2 includes questions about ellipses, hyperbolas, polar coordinates and coordinates in three dimensions. The trigonometry questions on Level 2 place more emphasis on the properties and graphs of trigonometric functions, the inverse trigonometric functions, trigonometric equations and identities, and the laws of sines and cosines.

Data Analysis, Statistics and Probability. This region is expressed as an nsP or nsP polyprotein via cap-dependent translation, which is further cleaved by an nsP2-encoded protease. In context to the structural protein ORF, it is embedded in a subgenomic mRNA, and is translated into proteins via a cap-dependent mechanism. This structural ORF polyprotein is finally cleaved into capsid, envelope glycoproteins E1, and glycoprotein E2.

Mathematical Economics (MECO)

After being translocated by the secretory pathway, these heterodimer spikes penetrate into the plasma membrane of infected cells, and cytoplasmic nucleocapsids containing the genomic RNA and copies of the capsid protein bud from the cell surface for assembly of the virion envelope and envelope protein spikes [ 28 ].

During early infection, the nonstructural proteins are synthesized directly from the two third of genomic RNA as a P polypeptide that is further cleaved to form Nsp1, Nsp2, Nsp3, and Nsp4 nonstructural proteins. Nsp1 protein is involved in the synthesis of minus-strand RNA, in addition to building association of the replication complex with cellular membranes. Nsp2 protein acts as a helicase and proteinase that cleaves the nonstructural polyprotein to form the individual nonstructural proteins [ 30 ].

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Nsp4 interacts with the N terminal region and other nonstructural proteins and host factors, and acts as the viral RNA polymerase. These proteins are then cleaved co-translationally and post translationally to form the functional structural proteins. These structural proteins have important functions during virus replication and particularly, in the interaction with the host. Such interaction with the host was first presented by the production of antibodies that played important roles in the recovery from infection [ 31 ].

This region is mainly involved in translation of viral proteins rather than in replication of the genomic RNA [ 28 , 32 ]. The interaction between the envelope proteins of CHIKV and receptors of host cells is required to penetrate into vertebrate cells. The virus is transported into the cell by endocytosis of clathrin-coated vesicles. The activation of E1 protein from the E1-E2 complex is initiated because of the pH reduction of the vesicle, thereby initiating fusion of viral and endosomal membranes, resulting in the release of the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm.

The first event is P precursor polyprotein translation and RNA replication. P polyproteins are directly translated from the viral genome, followed by the initiation of RNA replication through the synthesis of a complete minus-strand RNA, which serves as the template for the synthesis of the viral genome and for the transcription of 26S subgenomic plus-strand RNA from the internal promoter of the junction region. As both processes are interlinked, Nsp4 associates with P and other host factors to regulate the synthesis of minus-strand RNA, after cleavage from the P polyprotein.

This switching from genome replication to transcription of sub-genomic 26S positive-strand RNA is also regulated by the nonstructural proteins that were cleaved from the P polyproteins [ 34 ]. Autocatalytic cleavage of the N-terminal region of structural polyprotein precursor generates the capsid protein, followed by encapsidation of the viral genomic RNA, thereby, resulting in the rapid assembly of nucleocapsid cores in the cytoplasm.

In parallel, E2 and E1 are transferred to the plasma membrane after being cleaved from the envelope polyprotein precursor. Finally, the packaging of the virus is performed in the cytoplasm by the assembly of nucleocapsid cores along with glycoproteins, and the virus is released by budding through the cellular membrane to form an enveloped virion [ 34 ]. The most common symptom in chikungunya disease is painful polyarthralgia, mainly bilateral, symmetrical and culminates within few days usually affecting peripheral joints like ankles, toes, fingers, elbows, wrists and knees. The joints exhibit extreme tenderness and swelling with patients frequently reporting incapacitating pain that lasts for weeks or months.

Other typical signs for CHIKV infection include fever, headache, retro-orbital pain, chills, weakness, lumbar back pain, joint stiffness, malaise, nausea and a rash that may or may not be accompanied by other signs and symptoms of the disease [ 35 ]. The fever almost always precedes the rash and joint pain and only very rarely has been reported as biphasic with recurrence noted on the fourth or fifth day of illness. Older patients with an history of rheumatism exhibit more severe symptoms in comparison to younger patients [ 36 ].

Detailed studies on the pathogenesis of the chikungunya fever are rare. It is hypothesized that after inoculation, primary viral multiplication occurs in lymphoid and myeloid cells.